[4][48] The only mention of his name, as "the King's Son Amenhotep," was found on a wine docket at Amenhotep III's Malkata palace, where some historians suggested Akhenaten was born. May my brother cause me no distress. [108] Sometime after his return to Amurru, Aziru defected to the Hittite side with his kingdom.

[222][205] Because the god Aten was referred to as "the mother and father of all humankind," Montserrat and others suggest that Akhenaten was made to look androgynous in artwork as a symbol of the androgyny of the Aten. But if the profiles of the two heads are superimposed upon each other and orientated in the same plane, it will be seen how sharply they also differ. Egyptologists, such as Aidan Dodson, consider this year twelve celebration to be the zenith of Akhenaten's reign. [67], Early in his reign, Amenhotep IV ordered the construction of temples or shrines to the Aten in several cities across the country, such as Bubastis, Tell el-Borg, Heliopolis, Memphis, Nekhen, Kawa, and Kerma. Crown prince Thutmose, Amenhotep III and Tiye's eldest son and Akhenaten's brother, was recognized as Amenhotep III's heir.

[174], The implementation of Atenism can be traced through gradual changes in the Aten's iconography, and Egyptologist Donald B. Redford divided its development into three stages, earliest, intermediate, and final, in his studies of Akhenaten and Atenism. [255] The pharaoh also inspired the 1983 opera Akhnaten by Philip Glass. [56] Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner, and Lawrence Berman contested the view of any coregency whatsoever between Akhenaten and his father. There is a slight degree of hydrocephalus (water on the brain) such as is often associated with Fröhlich’s Syndrome and also an over-growth of the mandible, such as may result from interference with pituitary.’5. This is all the more remarkable when we remember that the shape of the so-called Akhenaten skull is unusual and that in width it exceeded any skull ever measured by the writer in Egypt. tombs of the period, which have been discovered in excellent condition. c)  If the answers to questions (a) and (b) could be ‘reconciled’. It is also possible that the purpose of the ceremony was to figuratively fill Amenhotep IV with strength before his great enterprise: the introduction of the Aten cult and the founding of the new capital Akhetaten. [231] Basing his arguments on his belief that the Exodus story was historical, Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest who was forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death.

See today's front and back pages, download the newspaper, The full significance of Akhenaten’s ostentatious parade of his domestic life will also have to be properly assessed.

[137], Akhenaten died after seventeen years of rule and was initially buried in a tomb in the Royal Wadi east of Akhetaten.

Secondly, it is not wholly unexpected that two contemporary male members of the royal house such as Tutankhamun and the occupant of the coffin, who would almost certainly have had several progenitors in common, could have had similar skull measurements. In the 2007 animated film La Reine Soleil, Akhenaten, Tutankhaten, Akhesa (Ankhesenepaten, later Ankhesenamun), Nefertiti, and Horemheb are depicted in a complex struggle pitting the priests of Amun against Atenism. Sandison did not disappoint Aldred: ‘The evidence of the monuments strongly suggests that Akhenaten suffered from an endocrine abnormality presenting hypogonadism [deficiency of one of the sexual glands] and adiposity, and with residual evidence of an earlier phase of hyperpituitarism [over-function of the pituitary gland in the brain, resulting in gigantism] manifested by cranial and facial changes. Inside was a skeleton that they found out could be for Akhenate. A copy of the speech survives on one of the pylons at the Karnak Temple Complex near Thebes. If this is impossible, I will send my son in my place' – the king, your lord, let you off this year in accordance with what you said. [97] What Rib-Hadda did not comprehend was that the Egyptian king would not organize and dispatch an entire army north just to preserve the political status quo of several minor city states on the fringes of Egypt's Asiatic Empire.

Marfan sufferers tend towards tallness, with a long, thin face, elongated skull, overgrown ribs, a funnel or pigeon chest, a high curved or slightly cleft palate, and larger pelvis, with enlarged thighs and spindly calves, symptoms that appear in some depictions of Akhenaten. The tomb was discovered by Edward R. Ayrton in 1907 while working for the wealthy American Theodore M. Davis. [129] Regardless of its origin, the epidemic might account for several deaths in the royal family that occurred in the last five years of Akhenaten's reign, including those of his daughters Meketaten, Neferneferure, and Setepenre. “A damaged portrait of Akhenaten was found inside with four canopic jars containing the organs of a mummy.
Because only he knew his father's mind and will, Akhenaten alone could interpret that will for all mankind with true teaching coming only from him. Smenkhkare could have been Akhenaten's son or brother, as the son of Amenhotep III with Tiye or Sitamun. [228] This suggests that she enjoyed unusual status for a queen. [57][58], Most recently, in 2014, archeologists found both pharaohs' names inscribed on the wall of the Luxor tomb of vizier Amenhotep-Huy. I approach him, the things which he has made.
The Theban Aten temples that had begun were abandoned, and a village of those working on Valley of the Kings tombs was relocated to the workers' village at Akhetaten. It is usually called simply the Royal Tomb because it was apparently built for the burial of multiple members of the Royal Family of Akhenaten, as well as for himself. Cyril Aldred, based on Amarna letters describing Egyptian troop movements, proposed that Akhenaten launched an unsuccessful war around the city of Gezer, while Marc Gabolde argued for an unsuccessful campaign around Kadesh.

Nevertheless, the pelvic abnormality and facial and cranial structure support a diagnosis of hypogonadism and pituitary cranial dysplasia [abnormal development or growth]. In video games, for example, Akhenaten is the enemy in the Assassin's Creed Origins "The Curse of the Pharaohs" DLC, and must be defeated to remove his curse on Thebes. Additionally, a version of Akhenaten (incorporating elements of H.P. [250] However, DNA tests on Tutankhamun in 2010 proved negative for Marfan syndrome. of the tomb could have been removed and replaced with another body.

In traditional art, a pharaoh's divine nature was expressed by repose, even immobility. Such evidence suggests that though Akhenaten shifted funding away from traditional temples, his policies were fairly tolerant until some point, perhaps a particular event as yet unknown, toward the end of the reign. [163] The gods replaced the pharaoh as their own representatives on Earth. Such a likeness to his supposed father-in-law in the man who had married Akhenaten’s daughter could only mean some blood relationship and therefore it was concluded that Tutankhamun must have been a son of Akhenaten, probably by another wife.’7, The age of the skeleton at the time of death, plus the facts that the tomb of Tutankhamun had already been found and that Reginald Engelbach, one of Derry’s early students, had been trying to argue that the coffin found in Tomb No. Smith may have been misled by the fact that the Amarna revolution produced two distinct kinds of art: while one was naturalistic, representing an image as near to its original as possible, as for instance the limestone dyad of Akhenaten and Nefertiti in the Louvre; the second school was romantic, giving an exaggerated form of its models, the best example of this being the four Osirian colossi of Akhenaten found at Karnak.

All life on Earth depended on the Aten and the visible sunlight.

All the antiquities recovered from this tomb are now in the Cairo Museum except a few objects, including one of the four canopic jars, which were given to Davis, the American sponsor of the excavation, and are now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Four magic bricks, to protect the deceased in the underworld, were also found in situ, inscribed with the name of Akhenaten. [223] This required "a symbolic gathering of all the attributes of the creator god into the physical body of the king himself", which will "display on earth the Aten's multiple life-giving functions". Dozens of letters detail that Akhenaten – and Amenhotep III – sent Egyptian and Nubian troops, armies, archers, chariots, horses, and ships.[105]. [...] When he had sought out the gods' precincts which were in ruins in this land, he refounded them just as they had been since the time of the first primeval age. Forty years ago archaeologists were puzzled by the pictures of this Pharaoh, and it was suggested that he was a woman masquerading as a man. Indeed, a cache of royal jewelry found buried near the Amarna royal tombs (now in the National Museum of Scotland) includes a finger ring referring to Mut, the wife of Amun. [254] He was portrayed in the Greek play Pharaoh Akhenaton (Greek: Φαραώ Αχενατόν) by Angelos Prokopiou. [152][153], With Akhenaten's death, the Aten cult he had founded fell out of favor: at first gradually, and then with decisive finality. He said: “No one can tell you the true story of this tomb, it’s like a mysterious film, but I will tell you the truth.

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